2020 Guide to CBD Health & Wellness: How it Works & How it can Help You

Introduction

There is no shortage of information about CBD. However, there’s a significant shortage of conclusive data on anything regarding cannabis. That’s why, as a cannabis enthusiast looking for a deeper understanding of all and any things cannabis, you need to be careful where you get your information.

CBD is perhaps one of the most popular subjects in the industry today. So, even if you’re not familiar with what it is and why it’s becoming increasingly popular, chances are you’ve heard its name before.

Assuming you’re not familiar with its benefits and effects on the body, let us tell you, there’s a list of very valid reasons for CBD’s deserved spotlight. But we won’t touch on that just yet. We can anticipate, though, that there is an endless list of inspiring stories of people that have begun to use CBD as a last resort for an ailment that didn’t seem to have a solution with traditional medicine.

Stories involve children prescribed seizure medication that reduced the number of seizures but harmed the way the children communicate and behave. By using CBD, not only have people been able to counter the side-effects of seizure medication but have also been able to control seizures and quit traditional medicines altogether. Other commonly cited stories include sleepless nights and anxiety attacks that have been kept to a minimum using CBD.

However impressive, these are still all anecdotal stories and stray far from claiming conclusive evidence of CBD’s benefits. But they’re still worth mentioning, as they are real, and in many cases, life-changing for people that had no other way out of an often excruciatingly painful situation.

A deeper understanding of CBD's potential benefits is still needed all across the board. Many companies are still learning CBD's depths as an alternative to traditional medication or as a simple supplement to daily routines. The possibilities for CBD are endless, and its potential is beyond imaginable. The passing of the 2018 Farm Bill has granted legalization of hemp-derived CBD across all 50-States in the U.S. The interest of other countries across the world has sparked. They are leading manufacturing countries to work towards farming and harvesting legalization actively.

With legalization gaining momentum globally, knowledge of CBD's real power is growing by the minute, translating into positive results, functional products that meet quality and safety standards, more substantial consumer knowledge of benefits, and better accessibility to CBD the market.

That is what we're chasing with this article—providing you with the ability to choose a product that fits your needs and the awareness necessary to understand what makes a CBD product a good fit for your specific needs and conditions.

Cannabis 101

CBD is one of more than 500+ components found in the cannabis plant, of which 113+ are known as 'cannabinoids.' Out of a total of 113 cannabinoids, THC is the only one with psychoactive properties. If extracted independently, CBD is a non-psychoactive component.

Human studies are still being conducted to determine CBD's actual effects and benefits on the human body. However, we have enough evidence to know that the cannabinoid can positively affect the body depending on condition and dose. CBD's side effects are also being determined but have not been known to be severe or life-threatening when present. Hence the legal status of hemp-extracted CBD across all 50 States in the U.S. If extracted from alternative sources (i.e., marijuana), CBD is considered illegal in most states.

The ECS

The Endocannabinoid System, or ECS, is the system within the mammalian body that interacts and activates incoming cannabinoids' effects. So, let's say that you take CBD oil. It is the endocannabinoid system within your body that interacts with it. It does so by allowing endocannabinoid receptors to latch onto inbound cannabinoids. Activation occurs for the cannabinoids upon this interaction. 

However:

The interaction between cannabinoids and receptors is determined by the receptor's location on the body and by the cannabinoid. There are two different endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 & CB2), and the receptor that is activated will also determine the effects CBD has on your body.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. CBD for Muscles and Bones
 1.1 CBD & Arthritis
 1.2 CBD & Pain
 1.3 CBD & Fibromyalgia
 1.4 CBD - Inflammation & Muscle Recovery
 1.5 CBD & Osteoporosis/Bone Health
2 CBD for Nervous System
 2.1 CBD & Anxiety
 2.2 CBD & ADD & ADHD
 2.3 CBD & Multiple Sclerosis
 2.4 CBD & Epilepsy
 2.5 CBD & Parkinson’s Disease
 2.6 CBD & Alzheimer’s Disease
 2.7 CBD & Addiction
 2.8 CBD & Schizophrenia
3. CBD in Psychiatric/Psychological Disorders
 3.1 CBD & Anxiety
 3.2 CBD & Depression
 3.3 CBD & Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
 3.4 CBD & PTSD
4. CBD & Skin Health
 4.1 CBD & Acne
 4.2 CBD & Inflammation
5. Conclusion
6. References

CBD for Muscles and Bones

The most critical role of CBD on muscle recovery is to reduce inflammation. The word ‘recovery’ is also a key term to consider because it allows us to infer that most of the research surrounding CBD and muscle health revolves around exercise-induced muscle damage. Perhaps this is because the sports industry is massive. Taking advantage of a product deficiency offering to treat muscle soreness and injury could be ground-breaking (and ‘bank-breaking’) for many companies.

This does not mean that CBD does not have a handful of positive overall muscle health effects. But it is noteworthy to comprehend where companies stand on CBD research. These companies will determine how scientists approach CBD experimentation.

CBD for Muscles and Bones

Like research related to muscle health, most of the research linking CBD to bone health concentrates on a few significant conditions, among which one of the most prominent is osteoporosis. That is not clear, but we could make the same assumption made regarding muscle health and CBD. 

The fact is that ECS influences many physiological processes, including appetite, sleep, pain, inflammation, and cognitive function. However, new research has uncovered ECS receptors found in bone cells. Which, in turn, allows CBD and other cannabinoids to play a role in bone remodeling and bone mass. Whether that role is big or small, we are yet to find out for sure. 

CBD & Arthritis

As discussed above, CBD's central role in muscle and bone health pertains to pain management and reduction of inflammation, which goes hand in hand with the way the ECS is designed to work on joints, muscles, and bones.

Given the nature of how CBD acts on the body, it can be considered a way to treat symptoms related to chronic arthritis pain and the inflammatory causes that go with it. Although CBD can be viewed as a promising approach to arthritis treatment, the truth is that there is no conclusive preclinical or clinical evidence to back it up. While the evidence is on the way, all we can back on conclusively is the unending list of anecdotal evidence and personal testimonies.

CBD & Pain

Along with other benefits, CBD's other attributes include analgesic properties for specific conditions. Because of its non-psychoactive properties, CBD presents an opportunity for intractable chronic pain treatment. However, we are yet to understand how CBD attacks pain and the kinds of pain it may help control [4].

Regardless of the lack of conclusive evidence, anecdotal evidence is anything but missing, with chronic pain patients giving praise to CBD as a critical part of their daily activities. Anecdotal evidence mustn't be official, and patients should consult about any pain with a licensed physician before beginning CBD. 

CBD & Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by musculoskeletal pain with fatigue symptoms, lack of sleep, memory loss, and mood issues. The primary and most heavy bearing symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic pain, which leads us to believe that CBD's promise as an alternative treatment to fibromyalgia comes linked to the component's analgesic properties discussed above.

To evaluate CBD's efficacy of fibromyalgia-induced chronic pain, we still lack more human studies. But anecdotal evidence points towards a potential use of CBD to induce better sleep, better mood, and manage chronic pain.

CBD - Inflammation & Muscle Recovery

A long list of CBD biological effects has been demonstrated in various preclinical studies where anti-inflammatory effects of the cannabinoid in the human body were highlighted. A reduction in inflammation comes tightly bound to muscle recovery, as it is an anti-inflammatory effect that helps muscle recover faster.

CBD & Osteoporosis/Bone Health

Even though many questions about the skeletal ECS remain unanswered, there is enough evidence for us to attribute positive effects in bone health to CBD. What we do know for sure is that there is a skeletal and a muscle-bound ECS. Research conducted by Raphael and Gabet [1] shows that “pharmaceutical modulation of the skeletal ECS may be a valid approach in the prevention or treatment of age-related and steroid deficiency-related osteoporosis.”

While there are other varieties of osteoporosis, this does not sound like a wrong place to start. Not only that, but studies conducted in mice show activation of CB2 receptors in bones to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption. In contrast, human trials show this activation to protect the body from osteoporosis.

A different study has tied cannabidiol (CBD) to an enhancement of the biomechanical properties of fracture healing (Kogan et al., 2015, p. 1907) [2]. This information also adds to the promise of an effective CBD-based treatment for osteoporosis and overall bone health.

CBD for Nervous System

One of the main benefits attributed to CBD is the component’s neuroprotective properties. By interacting with the ECS and other brain signaling systems, CBD may prove relevant to treatments for neurological disorders like epilepsy and multiple sclerosis. Studies have concentrated on understanding the relationship between CBD use and seizure activity. While the interaction with the nervous system still needs to be comprehended further, it is essential to note that multiple studies have found positive effects on children with Dravet Syndrome, a complex childhood epilepsy disorder.

CBD For Nervous System

Because of the studies available on seizure control, researchers have concluded that cannabidiol impacts the nervous system. Its use in other conditions such as anxiety, addiction, anorexia, schizophrenia, and other potentially neurological disorders is being investigated further. Most evidence linking CBD to these conditions is anecdotal, so experimenting with CBD for any pre-existing condition needs to be consulted with a licensed physician first.

CBD & Anxiety

A recent study conducted by Shannon (2019, p. 1) showed that decreased anxiety scores within the first month of dosing with CBD were found in 57 patients of a sample of 72 total adults. While conclusive evidence is not available, preliminary studies seem to validate CBD's role in anxiety suppression [6].

CBD & ADD & ADHD

THC has been found by some experts to play a counterproductive role in memory and attention. Allotting this counterproductiveness, a persisting increase in memory and attention loss with years of regular use. This is mainly due to THC's psychoactive effects, which have guided researchers away from traditional marijuana and placed their attention on cannabidiol (CBD).

While conclusive results were not found, significant improvement in ADHD symptoms and cognitive function were found in research from Cooper et al. (2016). However promising, the study was deemed inconclusive [7]. In terms of CBD and ADD & ADHD information, there is still a long way to go and too much to understand before we can safely point to CBD as proper treatment.

CBD & Multiple Sclerosis

Curing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is unfortunately not part of the long list of CBD benefits. However, CBD is a safe and effective way to reduce muscle spasticity in people with MS. While the cannabinoid cannot be confirmed as a proper treatment to the disease itself, it can help relieve some of the symptoms that arise from it.

In a study (Flachenecker, 2020) involving Sativex (an oral spray containing CBD and THC), results proved the medicament to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for MS symptoms [8]. While this specific study only involved one type of medication with a particular CBD: THC ratio, from its conclusion, CBD is a relevant substance when discussing MSS treatment.

CBD & Epilepsy

According to a 2015 study, 'almost a third of patients with epilepsy have a treatment-resistant form…" [9], which is more than enough reason to spark up interest in cannabis-based treatments for epilepsy. The study was held due to a lack of scientific results that back the positive effects of CBD on epilepsy. The findings suggested that "...cannabidiol might reduce seizure frequency and might have an adequate safety profile in children and young adults with highly treatment-resistant epilepsy."

Although promising, the study's findings remain inconclusive and overall broad as treatment-resistant epilepsy is an inclusive term to describe a condition. However, there are other studies and anecdotal evidence that document a reduction in seizure activity through CBD. 

CBD & Parkinson’s Disease

Several existing studies show that cannabidiol can improve quality of life and improve sleep-related behavior associated with a good night's sleep for patients who have Parkinson's Disease.

It's commonly known that Parkinson's Disease can cause REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). A 2014 study documented that cannabidiol can help control RBD symptoms in patients diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease [12], which alludes to the previous comment that CBD acts more to remedy symptoms rather than conditions themselves. Therefore aiding in quality of life improvement for patients with Parkinson's Disease [13].

CBD & Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by its negative effect on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. Current treatments have not proven to be successful cures for AD. 

Due to the lack of effective AD treatments and the surprising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of CBD, a rising interest in CBD research as a potential treatment for AD has been generated over the past decade. Although inconclusive to date, studies provide promising preliminary data that allows scientists to experiment safely with CBD [14]

CBD & Addiction

CBD has two different ways of managing addiction. One is a preventive use of CBD, where the patient will bank on cannabidiol's anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, suppressing any cravings of additional substances. It's a known fact depression and anxiety trigger many addictions like cigarette and alcohol addiction. By managing depression and anxiety with CBD, the patient may have a better chance to combat use.

The second way is by substituting addictive substances like opioids used for pain with a CBD treatment to help the patient deal with the problem. They are, therefore, avoiding the opportunity for the patient to get hooked on opioids.

There is also the belief of CBD to have a countering effect on symptoms of addiction directly. For instance, a 2015 study found that "A limited number of preclinical studies suggest that CBD may have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction…" [21]. The nature of this therapeutic effect is discussed in detail within the study. Still, we can summarize CBD's role in combating addiction as the result of its interaction with several neurotransmission systems involved in addiction.

CBD & Schizophrenia

To combat any form of psychosis, alter the dopamine D2 receptor in the body. The receptor was discovered in the 1950s, and since then, it remains the mainstream way of psychosis treatment. However, not every patient reacts in the same way to this kind of treatment, resulting in a subpar remission of symptoms in many cases. Hence the growing interest in an alternative, CBD-based treatment.

A 2019 study by Davies and Bhattacharyya concludes that “Initial clinical trials suggest that CBD is safe, well-tolerated and may have antipsychotic effects in patients with psychosis. There is some indication that CBD may be particularly effective in the early stages of the disorder, such as in patients at high clinical risk and those with first-episode psychosis” [22].

CBD in Psychiatric/Psychological Disorders

As with most clinical evidence regarding CBD and diagnosable medical conditions, the present proof of cannabinoid therapy in psychiatry is very young. But there are many isolated studies and anecdotal evidence that suggests the positive effects of the cannabinoid in psychiatric/psychological disorders.

CBD in Psychiatric and Psychological Disorders

Specific case studies grant CBD the ability to improve and help manage conditions like anxiety, PTSD, and insomnia. While a conservative approach is still advised when prescribing cannabinoids for any of these, the existing evidence is enough to label CBD as a promising therapeutic component.

CBD & Anxiety

CBD acts as a natural anxiolytic in multiple human studies. Yet, CBD's effect on a person with diagnosed anxiety may vary because various forms of stress, including PTSD and social anxiety disorder (SAD), are an example.

Studies do show, however, that CBD may act in favor of a reduction in anxiety levels. Be its evidence in a decrease in nightmares or negative memories, better sleep, or just a lower amount of behavioral anxiety episodes.

CBD & Depression

Possible causes of depression may include various reasons ranging in biological, psychological, and social nature. In some cases, depression relates to how the body releases and interacts with serotonin.

We don’t know for sure that CBD can cure depression altogether, but what we do know is that CBD affects the serotonin receptors in the brain. While cannabidiol doesn’t necessarily affect serotonin levels, it affects how the receptors respond to the serotonin released by the body. In a (2018, p. 1) study, CBD possesses anxiolytic properties that may prove useful in various conditions like epilepsy, substance abuse, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia [18].

CBD & Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

We’ve already touched base on findings that suggest CBD may help with psychiatric disorders, which in turn covers obsessive-compulsive disorder to a certain extent. Likewise, we’ve also mentioned the anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol, and OCD is, sometimes, anxiety-induced.

More specifically, a study has brought up increasing evidence that the ECS could be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, this merely means that cannabinoids, in general, may affect the behavior of OCD, but it is not known if this list would include CBD or if it would have to be used in combination with other treatments.

CBD & PTSD

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition characterized by a poor adaptation of the subject to a traumatic experience. Commonly found among army veterans, existing PTSD therapies are often inefficient, and most medicines used to control it are known to generate considerable side effects in patients.

With these pre-existing conditions that often determine the fate of people diagnosed with PTSD, the medical industry has been prompted into investigating alternative treatments, and cannabis-based therapies have gained particular attention. CBD is among the frontrunners because of its non-psychoactive formulation.

In a (2018, p.1) study, researchers discovered that the two primary receptors (CB1 & CB2) found in the ECS are essential in several neurophysiological functions that mediate emotions. This alone does not say much about CBD's role in emotional modulation, but it does spark interest in knowing how it affects it. The fact that CBD is non-psychoactive and mostly safe allows for human trials, and scientists expect results to get us one step closer to conclusive results [16].

CBD & Skin Health

As the cannabis industry grows, the amount of CBD products available in the market grows with it. CBD skincare and beauty products are becoming more and more popular. As CBD sparks up interest in the medical field, other fields are finding the cannabinoid quite useful. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties of CBD have prompted interest from the skincare and beauty industry.

CBD & Skin Health

As research that confirms these attributes becomes widely available, companies have started to realize CBD's vast potential. While 'skin health' is an inclusive term, companies have pinpointed their effects and used them to attack specific acne and skin inflammation conditions. 

In research from Oláh et al., the ECS is attributed to regulating cutaneous cell growth. Along with this information, CBD was attributed to sebostatic properties on the skin, which means that CBD could have anti-aging effects on the skin. Hence the interest of skincare brands around the world.

CBD & Acne

Acne is a skin condition where the pores on the surface clog by unwanted residue, dead skin cells, and excess oil. These ‘clogs’ develop into nasty red blemishes that can ultimately become infected. That said, CBD oil could have a counterproductive effect in clogging; this is why it’s essential to visit a licensed dermatologist before applying any skincare products.

A 2014 study on the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD on the human body found that “...results strongly suggest that CBD’s universal sebostatic action is accompanied by substantial anti-inflammatory effects, which would be very much desired in the clinical treatment of acne vulgaris” [20].

Because of its anti-inflammatory properties, CBD has been coined as a promising alternative to traditional acne therapies. It could potentially inhibit oil-producing glands from reacting harshly to infection. CBD impedes oil production itself. The key is to know what type of CBD product you need, whether it’s an oil, salve, or perhaps a capsule should be left up to your doctor.

CBD & Inflammation

We’ve already touched base on the link between CBD and muscular inflammation. Skin inflammation is no different in terms of mechanics and how CBD acts on the inflammation. However, skincare is advantageous because most skin inflammation is superficial, allowing you to apply the product directly to the problem area.

We already know that the ECS has receptors present on the skin, so by applying CBD directly onto the skin, the incoming cannabinoids can interact with the receptors on your skin instantly.

Conclusion

The potential uses of CBD in the healthcare and wellness industry are endless. There exist opportunities across the board that include benefits to the musculoskeletal system, neurology, the endocrine system, genetics, the digestive system, skincare, and cognitive health. While most of the effects that CBD has been attributed to need plenty of research to be conclusively accurate, it is safe to say that CBD as a substance shows excellent potential. It is suitable for its properties and how it interacts in a mostly safe manner with the human body.

References

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[2] Kogan, N. M., Melamed, E., Wasserman, E., Raphael, B., Breuer, A., Stok, K. S., Sondergaard, R., Escudero, A. V. V., Baraghithy, S., Attar-Namdar, M., Friedlander-Barenboim, S., Mathavan, N., Isaksson, H., Mechoulam, R., Müller, R., Bajayo, A., Gabet, Y., & Bab, I. (2015). Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 30(10), 1905–1913. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2513

[3] Shmerling, R. H. (2020, April 9). Does CBD help with arthritis pain? Harvard Health Blog. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/does-cbd-help-with-arthritis-pain-2020041019418

[4] Argueta, D. A. (2020, October 26). A Balanced Approach for Cannabidiol Use in Chronic Pain. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204604/

[5] Atalay, S. (2020, January 1). Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023045/

[6] Shannon, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente Journal, 1. https://doi.org/10.7812/tpp/18-041

[7] Cooper, R. E., Williams, E., Seegobin, S., Tye, C., Kuntsi, J., & Asherson, P. (2016). Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26, S130. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0924-977x(16)30912-9

[8] Flachenecker, P. (2020, October 26). Nabiximols (THC/CBD oromucosal spray, Sativex®) in clinical practice--results of a multicenter, non-interventional study (MOVE 2) in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity. PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24525548/

[9] Devinsky, O., Marsh, E., Friedman, D., Thiele, E., Laux, L., Sullivan, J., Miller, I., Flamini, R., Wilfong, A., Filloux, F., Wong, M., Tilton, N., Bruno, P., Bluvstein, J., Hedlund, J., Kamens, R., Maclean, J., Nangia, S., Singhal, N. S., … Cilio, M. R. (2016). Cannabidiol in patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. The Lancet Neurology, 15(3), 270–278. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1474-4422(15)00379-8

[10] Devinsky, O. (2017). Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(7), 699–700. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmc1708349

[11] Silvestro, S. (2019, April 1). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514832/

[12] Chagas, M. H. N., Eckeli, A. L., Zuardi, A. W., Pena-Pereira, M. A., Sobreira-Neto, M. A., Sobreira, E. T., Camilo, M. R., Bergamaschi, M. M., Schenck, C. H., Hallak, J. E. C., Tumas, V., & Crippa, J. A. S. (2014). Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 39(5), 564–566. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12179

[13] Chagas, M. H. N., Zuardi, A. W., Tumas, V., Pena-Pereira, M. A., Sobreira, E. T., Bergamaschi, M. M., dos Santos, A. C., Teixeira, A. L., Hallak, J. E. C., & Crippa, J. A. S. (2014). Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 28(11), 1088–1098. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881114550355

[14] Watt, G., & Karl, T. (2017). In vivo Evidence for Therapeutic Properties of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Alzheimer’s Disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2017.00020

[15] Sarris, J. (2020, October 26). Medicinal cannabis for psychiatric disorders: a clinically-focused systematic review. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966847/

[16] Bitencourt, R. M., & Takahashi, R. N. (2018). Cannabidiol as a Therapeutic Alternative for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: From Bench Research to Confirmation in Human Trials. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00502

[17] Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L. S., Martin-Santos, R., Simões, M. V., Bhattacharyya, S., Fusar-Poli, P., Atakan, Z., Filho, A. S., Freitas-Ferrari, M. C., McGuire, P. K., Zuardi, A. W., Busatto, G. F., & Hallak, J. E. C. (2010). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121–130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881110379283

[18] Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in Immunology, 9, 1. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009

[19] Szejko, N. (2020, October 26). Cannabis Improves Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder—Case Report and Review of the Literature. PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396551/

[20] Oláh, A., Tóth, B. I., Borbíró, I., Sugawara, K., Szöllõsi, A. G., Czifra, G., Pál, B., Ambrus, L., Kloepper, J., Camera, E., Ludovici, M., Picardo, M., Voets, T., Zouboulis, C. C., Paus, R., & Bíró, T. (2014). Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124(9), 3713–3724. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci64628

[21] Prud’homme, M., Cata, R., & Jutras-Aswad, D. (2015). Cannabidiol as an Intervention for Addictive Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 9, SART.S25081. https://doi.org/10.4137/sart.s25081

[22] Davies, C., & Bhattacharyya, S. (2019). Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 9, 204512531988191. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045125319881916

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